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Article 46 TFEU

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Article 46 (ex Article 40 TEC) The European Parliament and the Council shall, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure and after consulting the Economic and Social Committee, issue directives or make regulations setting out the measures required to bring about freedom of movement for workers, as defined in Article 45, in. Article 46 U.K. (ex Article 40 TEC). The European Parliament and the Council shall, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure and after consulting the Economic and Social Committee, issue directives or make regulations setting out the measures required to bring about freedom of movement for workers, as defined in Article 45, in particular Bianca Simina Duca, Scope of Article 102 TFEU: Protection of Competition or Protection of Competitors?, EU Law Working Papers No. 46, Stanford-Vienna Transatlantic Technology Law Forum (2020). Related Organization(s): Transatlantic Technology Law Foru Article 46 - Diplomatic and consular protection. Every citizen of the Union shall, in the territory of a third country in which the Member State of which he or she is a national is not represented, be entitled to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of any Member State, on the same conditions as the nationals of that Member State Article 46. (ex Article 40 TEC) Article 47. (ex Article 41 TEC) Article 48. (ex Article 42 TEC) CHAPTER 2 RIGHT OF ESTABLISHMENT. Article 49. (ex Article 43 TEC) Article 50. (ex Article 44 TEC) Article 51. (ex Article 45 TEC) Article 52. (ex Article 46 TEC) Article 53. (ex Article 47 TEC) Article 54

It is laid down in Article 45 of the TFEU and is a fundamental right of workers, complementing the free movement of goods, capital and services within the European single market. It entails the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment TFEU) (A rticle 37, paragraph 2: qualified majority in Council and simple consultation of EP) 11. Free movement of workers (A rticle 46 TFEU) (Article 40 TEC) 12. Internal market - social security measures for Community migrant workers2 (A rticle 48 TFEU) (A rticle 42 TEC: codecision - unanimity in the Council

(MFF) (Article 312 of the TFEU). The MFF for 2014-2020 is the first to be covered under the rules laid down in the TFEU. SCRUTINY OVER THE EXECUTIVE Parliament has several powers of scrutiny. In particular, it discusses the annual general report submitted to it by the Commission (Article 233 of the TFEU) an TFEU)4 is the main object of the research in this thesis. Generally the analysis of exclusion of employment in public sector from freedom of movement concept will be based on the mentioned provision of the TFEU. The legitimacy of derogation of article 45 TFEU embedde

Whilst this subsection says little of how the right is to be implemented, Article 46 of the TFEU provides the basis for secondary legislation, enabling Article 45 to take full force. [14] Subsection 2 notes that this freedom must be protected through the abolition of nationality-based discrimination between domestic and foreign workers Court of Justice. To date this series includes publications concerning Article 49 TFEU et seq. (Freedom of Establishment) and Article 56 TFEU et seq. (Freedom to Provide Services). A separate chapter in the guide concerning Article 56 TFEU is dedicated to the case law on Directive 2006/123/EC on services in the internal market (Services Directive)

Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of

Article 45 TFEU; Article 46 TFEU; Article 47 TFEU; Article 48 TFEU; Chapter 2 Right of Establishment; Article 49 TFEU; Article 50 TFEU; Article 51 TFEU; Article 52 TFEU; Article 53 TFEU; Article 54 TFEU; Article 55 TFEU; Chapter 3 Freedom to Provide Services; Article 56 TFEU; Article 57 TFEU; Article 58 TFEU; Article 59 TFEU; Article 60 TFEU. It incorporated statements within Articles 1 TEU and 1(2) TFEU expressing that they are of equal legal value and removed ex Article 46 TEU, 16 thereby enabling Article 4(2) TEU to be reviewed by the CJEU and relied upon in relation to the internal market. Consequently, the provision now could be used to interpret existing derogations broadly. The scheme of Article 101 TFEU. Article 101 TFEU is one of the three pillars of EU competition law. It prohibits restrictive agreements between independent market operators acting either at the same level of the economy (horizontal agreements), often as actual or potential competitors, or at different levels (vertical agreements), mostly as producer and distributor This approach of the ECJ to recognise any pecuniary charge as having discrimination on the eye of Article 30 and 110 TFEU is prohibited. Article 30 and 110 ensures the total free movements of. 1A transfer of personal data to a third country or an international organisation may take place where the Commission has decided that the third country, a territory or one or more specified sectors within that third country, or the international organisation in question ensures an adequate level of protection. 2Such a transfer shall not require Continue reading Art. 45 GDPR - Transfers.

No. 46: Scope of Article 102 TFEU: Protection of ..

  1. imum number of Member States from which such citizens must come
  2. Article 46 - Colleges . Benchmarks In the situation referred to in point (e) of paragraph 9 of this Article, and without prejudice to Article 258 TFEU, ESMA may act in accordance with the powers conferred on it under Article 19 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010
  3. (Article 46, now Art.52 TFEU) Companies exercise their freedom of establishment through primary and secondary establishments. A company may take part in the incorporation of a company in another Member State or transfer its seat from a home state to a host state in the case of primary establishment. Secondary establishment mean
  4. istrative action providing for special treatment for foreign nationals on grounds of public policy, public security or public health

Article 43, paragraph 2 TFEU Directives or regulations setting out the measures required to bring about freedom of movement for workers after consulting the Economic and Social Committee Article 46 TFEU TFEU, Part Three, Title IV, Chapter 1 - Workers Provisions relating to the aggregation, for the purpose of acquiring and retaining the right t Article 46 Frontex Regulation; Because Frontex is obliged to respect its obligations under the Treaties - Frontex failed to act vis-à-vis the Applicants, in infringement of the Treaties, within the meaning of Article 265 TFEU [ Section 4.4 ]

The TFEU is an amended and renamed version of the TEC. The TFEU includes enhancements to the social dimension of the European Union. It adds the non-discrimination principle (Article 10 TFEU) and equality between women and men ( Article 8 TFEU) to the values of the European Union These could be national instruments, such as Article 46 of Constitution and Article 4 of Law on Competition. The problem also could be analysed from the perspective of instruments offered by EU law, i.e. infringement of ² Article 106(1) TFEU applied in conjunction with Article 102 TFEU. This legal instrumen application at EU level of Article 102 has been proven to be difficult. Thus, possibly, Article 102 TFEU, which deals with unilateral conduct of dominant firms and the prohibition of 1 Cases T-213/01 and T-214/01 Österreichische Postsparkasse und Bank für Arbeit und Wirtschaft v. Commission [2006] ECR II-1601, para 115 Services. The freedom to provide services under TFEU article 56 applies to people who give services for remuneration, especially commercial or professional activity. For example, in Van Binsbergen v Bestuur van de Bedrijfvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid a Dutch lawyer moved to Belgium while advising a client in a social security case, and was told he could not continue because Dutch law. Article 46 1. Those Member States which wish to participate in the permanent structured cooperation referred to in Article 42(6), which fulfil the criteria and have made the commitments on military capabilities set out in the Protocol on permanent structured cooperation, shall notify their intention to the Council and to the High Representative.

Article 46 - Diplomatic and consular protection European

Chapter 1: ARTICLE 3 TEU. Chapter 2: ARTICLE 4 TEU. Chapter 3: ARTICLE 6 TEU. Chapter 4: ARTICLE 101 TFEU. Chapter 5: ARTICLE 102 TFEU. Chapter 6: ARTICLE 103 TFEU. Chapter 7: ARTICLE 104 TFEU. Chapter 8: ARTICLE 105 TFEU. Chapter 9: ARTICLE 106 TFEU 1. prohibition of quantitative restrictions on imports: Article 34 TFEU. · Article 34 TFEU prohibits Quantitative restrictions (QRs) on imports and all measures having equivalent effect (MEQRs). · Article 34 is directly effective (Ianelli & Volpi v Meroni). · A 'quantitative restriction' was defined by the ECJ in Geddo v Ente Nazionale. Article 3 (3) TEU states that the European Union is to establish an internal market, which, in accordance with Protocol No 27 on the internal market and competition, annexed to the Treaty of Lisbon (OJ 2010 C 83, p. 309), is to include a system ensuring that competition is not distorted. CoJ 17 February 2011 (Konkurrensverket v

  1. TFEU - Protocol No 3 -A58L1 : paragraphs 43, 46 TFEU - Protocol No 3 -A61L1 : paragraphs 83, 88 Regulation 1/2003 -A23P3 : paragraph 9
  2. Exercise of official authority falls outside Article 49 TFEU. Article 51 TFEU. Official authority implied the power of enjoying the prerogatives outside the general law, privileges of official power and powers of coercion over citizens. Reyners (auth) 46 terms. john_kauffman PLUS
  3. Quite a challenge: Article 263(4) TFEU and the case of the mystery measures Richard Lang1 1. Introduction When Winckler talks of Article 263(4) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union requiring further precision2, he is surely not wrong
  4. 46 Case 27/67 Fink-Frucht, ECLI:EU:C:1968:22, [1968] ECR Eng. Spec. Ed. 223, 231, 2nd para: 'Article [110 TFEU] is intended to remove certain restrictions on the free movement of goods. But to conclude that it prohibits the imposition of any internal taxation on imported goods which do not compete with domestic products would be to give it a.

The Treaty of Lisbon introduced Article 80 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) which states that the European Union's asylum policy will be based on the principles of solidarity and the fair-sharing of responsibility. However, no guidance is given as to the nature and content of these principles. This contribution seeks to explore the relationship between these two. Article 106.1 TFEU may in that case make the Member States subject to the. competition rules—which in their own capacity would only apply to undertakings. In the following, the application of Article 106.1 TFEU, read in conjunction with. Article 102 TFEU, towards Member State regulation on SGEIs is referred to as ARTICLE 102/TFEU. 'Any abuse by one or more undertakings of a dominant position within the common market or in a substantial part of it shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market so far as it may affect trade between Member States Article 101(2) TFEU provides that any agreements or decisions prohibited pursuant to [Article 101(1)] shall be automatically void. The principle of sanction of voidness is debatable when it comes to the extent of application to concerted practices. It merely refers to agreements and decisions to the exclusion of concerted practices

According to case-law following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and the changes that were brought to Article 263 (4), the meaning of 'regulatory act' for the purposes of the fourth paragraph of Article 263 TFEU must be understood as covering all acts of general application apart from legislative acts (Case T‑18/10 Inuit. The public enforcement consequences that an undertaking may face when breaching Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) are essentially of two kinds: substitutionary remedies2 (e.g. fines and periodic penalty payments), and structural or behavioural remedies.3. Each kind pursues different competition policy.

As previously mentioned, it follows from the Travaux Préparatoires for Article 345 TFEU that one of the earlier versions of the article read 'le régime de propriété des entreprises'.45 This is not surprising, given the wording of Article 83 ECSC, which was the precursor of Article 345 TFEU.46 The interpretation given by the Court to. The Commission also resorted, from the outset, to soft law instruments allowing firms to self‐assess the compatibility of their practices with Article 101(1) TFEU.46 46 See Notice on patent licensing agreements [1962] OJ 139/2922; Notice on exclusive dealing contracts with commercial agents [1962] OJ 139/2921; Notice on cooperation agreements. Article 101 (1) TFEU: The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the internal market: all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between Member States and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition. On the contrary, according to the third paragraph of Article 288 TFEU, directives shall be binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon each Member State to which it is addressed, but shall leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods.. Therefore, as the CJEU explained in settled case-law, by virtue of the very. Article 18 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) states: The restrictions permitted under this Convention to the said rights and freedoms shall not be applied for any purpose other than those for which they have been prescribed. This Article means that it is a violation of the ECHR for a state to restrict a listed human right for.

CORPORATE MOBILITY UNDER ARTICLE 49 TFEU [2011] EBLR857 is conducted through secondary establishments.45 A `real seat' Member State is therefore prevented from applying its incorporation requirements to a company validly incorporated in another Member State, even if it sought to establish its central administration in that State.46 In effect. Article 101 TFEU. - Aims to protect the normal, competitive working of the single market. It attempts to do so by prohibiting all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between Member States and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or. Summary:This paper reflects on two key issues: whether Article 101 TFEU is suitable and effective in addressing structural competition problems, and the role ex-ante regulation could play.The author asserts that ex-ante regulation in the form of the NCT, combined with ex-post enforcement of the Article 101 TFEU prohibition, could better address the structural competition problems of.

Free movement of workers Fact Sheets on the European

Article 267 & 45 TFEU - LawTeacher

  1. Article 46 TFEU constitutes a legal base which entitles the European Parliament and Council to adopt secondary legislation in relation to the policy of free movement of workers. A range of directives and regulations were adopted under the former Article 40 EC Treaty (now Article 46 TFEU) to specify the conditions of entry, residence and the.
  2. d that it is settled case-law that that provision is intended to apply independently only to situations governed by EU law in respect to which the FEU Treaty does not lay down specific rules on non.
  3. under Article 36 TFEU (which contains exceptions to Article 34 TFEU) if certain conditions are met.5 Articles 34 as Directive 2007/46/EC was. * Article 29 of Directive 2007/46/EC allows a Member State to refuse to register or permit the sale or entry into service in its territory o
  4. Article 16(2) TFEU mandates the European Parliament and the Council to lay down the rules relating to the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and the rules relating to the free movement of personal data. or Article 26(4) of Directive 95/46/EC. In its adequacy decisions, the Commission should provide.

GUIDE TO THE CASE LAW Of the European Court of Justice on

annulment procedure codified in Article 263 TFEU. 3. Apart from providing European institutions with the right to challenge the legality of EU acts, Article 263 TFEU also grants natural and legal persons, i.e. the so-called 'non-privileged' applicants listed in Article 263(4) TFEU, the right to file actions for annulment Article 215 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides a legal basis for the interruption or reduction, in part or completely, of the Union's economic and financial relations with one or more third countries, where such restrictive measures are necessary to achieve the objectives of the Common Foreig Article 165(1) TFEU, the European Union is to contribute to the promotion of European sporting issues, while taking account of the specific nature of sport. 10/14/2019 12:38:46 PM. Article 107(1) TFEU. Save as otherwise provided in the Treaties, any aid granted by a Member State or through State resources in any form whatsoever which distorts or threatens to distort competition by favouring certain undertakings or the production of certain goods shall, in so far as it affects trade between Member States, be incompatible with the internal market measures in the context of Article 263 TFEU does not depend on the level of discretion afforded to the im plementing authority. After a summary of the out come at both instances, this note discusses the im pact and significance of the case for the system of remedies under the Treaties. II. Facts T&L Sugars and Sidul Açucares are two refiners o

Article 47 - Right to an effective remedy and to a fair

meaning of Article 107(1) TFEU an d was compatible with the internal market on the basis of Article 107(2)(b) TFEU. Procedure and forms of order sought. 6 By application lodged at the Cour t Registry on 6 November 2020, the ap plicant, Ryanair DAC, brought. the present action. This stems according to AG Bobek from the common characteristic that Art. 101 TFEU shares with a number of other Treaty provisions that guarantee fundamental individual rights, such as Articles 45 and 46 TFEU (free movement of workers), Art. 49 and Art. 50(2) TFEU (freedom of establishment) and Art. 157 TFEU (principle of equal pay for equal work) recognized in primary law. Article 36 TFEU, for instance, provides that prohibitions or restrictions on the free movement of goods 'shall not constitute a means of 2 ex Art 30 EC. 3 ex Articles 39(3) EC and 46 EC. 4 ex Article 58 EC. 5 For instance, Art. 36 TFEU also refers to public morality, the protection of health and life of animal .... 46 A) The discretionary powers of the Commission and the role of complainants in the infringement procedure the Commission may wish to revisit how it exercises its powers under Article 258 TFEU: this report is an invitation to explore this possibility

Consequently, article 101(1) TFEU will generally not be applicable to obligations imposed on the commercial agent as to the contracts negotiated and/or concluded on behalf of the principal where. Article 101(3) TFEU, this was seen as highly unlikely. Particular restrictions that fall within the impugned category are therefore automatically seen as having the object of restricting competition under Article 101(1) TFEU.4 As such, they involve an obvious infringement of Article 101(1) TFEU.5 Restrictions by object do no Url-link to highlighted text was copied to the clipboard! Preparing download.. 1 The protection of natural persons in relation to the processing of personal data is a fundamental right. 2 Article 8(1) of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the 'Charter') and Article 16(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provide that everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her Article 28 - Processor. Where processing is to be carried out on behalf of a controller, the controller shall use only processors providing sufficient guarantees to implement appropriate technical and organisational measures in such a manner that processing will meet the requirements of this Regulation and ensure the protection of the rights.

14. Freedom of Establishment and the Free Movement of ..

Article 106 (1) TFEU ready for duty again; the CJEU's judgment in the DEI case. On 17 July 2014 the Court of Justice (CJEU) delivered its much awaited judgment in the DEI case. [1] This was a very important case for the future of Article 106 (1) TFEU, and the CJEU's judgment certainly met expectations. Article 106 TFEU is certainly a. Article 36 TFEU - The provisions of Articles 34 and 35 shall not preclude prohibitions or restrictions on imports, exports or goods in transit justified on grounds of public morality, public policy or public security; the protection of health and life of humans, animals or plants; the protection of national treasures possessing artistic, historic or archaeological value; or the protection of. The Mutual Assistance and Solidarity Clauses is the first comprehensive comparative analysis of two major innovations introduced by the Lisbon Treaty.Antonio-Maria Martino's study focuses on the origins, scope, interpretation and technical aspects of both clauses, with a particular focus on the Solidarity Clause This article addresses the question from an EU law perspective.4 It is based on the assumption that this is a norm conflict5 in the classic sense, and that it must be solved under one applicable conflicts rule.6 The conflicts rule that the EU law regime offers is Article 351 TFEU.7 In dealing with Article 351 TFEU, this article will keep coming back to the specific example o (Article 310 TFEU), and with the integrity of the own resources system (Article 311 TFEU). B. Whether the legal basis chosen for the Recovery Instrument, namely Article 122 TFEU, is appropriate. C. Whether the NGEU is compatible with Article 125(1) TFEU (no bail-out clause) 5. The Council Legal Service will examine the above questions in turn

States legislation for Article 114 TFEU to apply.4 This condition, together with the ones expressly written and later interpreted by the CJEU in Article 114 TFEU, provides a first determination of the scope of Article 114 TFEU. However, the CJEU has been reluctant to provide with deeper insight on the conditions that needs to me met and where th Article 46 TFEU. Giovanni Orlandini Article 47 TFEU. Giovanni Orlandini Article 48 TFEU. I. General remarks on Article 48 TFEU and the implementing secondary legislation . II. Principles on coordination of national social security systems . III. Special non-contributory cash benefits regime . IV. List of case In this regard Article 102 TFEU is by far the most popular norm to be mated to Article 106 TFEU as the exclusive right mentioned in Article 106 TFEU is easily equated to a statutory monopoly for the public undertaking and thus dominance within the meaning of that provision. 46. It follows from the matters addressed in paragraphs 41 to 45. en Firstly, application on the basis of Article 263 TFEU seeking the annulment of Article 1(27), (32), (46), (61), (64)(b), (65)(b) and (67)(d) of Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 1023/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2013 amending the Staff Regulations of Officials of the European Union and the Conditions of Employment of Other Servants of the European Union (OJ.

LEGENDS | Article 46

Article 34 TFEU Interpretation Regulation of Market

It went on to observe that (45) [] the contested decision would only be vitiated by a failure to state reasons if the Commission had been required to apply the analytical framework which, according to Viasat, results from Article 106(2) TFEU. (46) However, it follows from paragraph 37 above that Article 106(2) TFEU did not require. The President of the General Court ruled, first, that nullity under Article 101(2) TFEU does not apply to prohibited concerted practices. [6] Case T-411/08 R Artisjus v. Commission, 2008 ECR II-270, para. 46

An evaluation of the extent to which the Court of Justice

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate on whether EU law needs a regulation on a common administrative procedure and, if so, on what its content and scope could be. If an EU administrative procedure regulation is adopted under the legal basis contained by Article 298(2) TFEU, it shall answer in the first place to the principles of Article 298(1) TFEU: to an open, efficient and. Market Failures, Transaction Costs and Article 101(1) TFEU Case Law By Pablo Ibanez Colomo Reprinted from European Law Review Issue 5, 2012 Sweet & Maxwell 100 Avenue Road Swiss Cottage London NW3 3PF (Law Publishers TY - CHAP. T1 - Article 276 TFEU. AU - Gill-Pedro, Eduardo. PY - 2018/7/31. Y1 - 2018/7/31. N2 - Commentary on Article 276 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which provides for an exception for the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the EU in respect of questions concerning the validity and proportionality of operations carried out by the police or other law. The first derogation, stipulated in Article 65 (1) (a) TFEU is specific to tax and stipulates acceptable tax provisions that existed at the end of 1993 and, thus, it is not applicable on the FTT. The second set of derogations is stipulated in article 65 (1) (b) TFEU and consists of three possible general derogations to the free movement of.

Actions for annulment under Article 263 of the TFEU by

Article 50 is a clause in the European Union's (EU) Lisbon Treaty that outlines the steps to be taken by a country seeking to leave the bloc voluntarily. Invoking Article 50 kick-starts the formal. In addition, the major constituent elements of Article 102 TFEU - such as market definition, dominance, effect on trade, and applicable remedies - are considered at length. Jointly authored by a lawyer and an economist, The Law and Economics of Article 102 TFEU contains an integrated approach to the legal and economic principles that frame. 46. 163. In particular, Article 16 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Freedoms recognizes [t]he freedom to conduct a business in accordance with Union law and national laws and practices. 164. Article 101(3) TFEU. 165. A rticle 101(3) G uidelines, supra note 145, para. 73. 166. Id. para. 75. 167. See generally OECD, C risis C artels, DAF. 1.01 The basic European Union ('EU') competition provisions applicable to businesses or undertakings are Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ('TFEU').1 Both provisions are an important part of the EU legal order and pursue one of the main objectives of the TFEU and the Treaty on European Union ('TEU'), namely that of achieving an internal market

Guidance for Member States on Article 46 - reporting on

Article 102 TFEU and safeguarding the right to effective judicial protection for proprietors of intellectual property rights, in the form of the right to enforce the rights, as guaranteed by Article 17(2) and Article 47 of the Charter.3 Therefore, the otherwise lawful exercise of an exclusive right linked to a patent, can onl Competition on the merits: Article 102 TFEU seeks to ensure that firms remain willing and able to compete on the merits. The exclusion of firms that are less efficient is the very manifestation of the process that EU competition law is intended to preserve: it is the logical and expected outcome of a system based on undistorted competition

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The above arguments should be criticized and evaluated having in mind the scope of article 267 TFEU, the needs that this article serves but also the position of the community law in the hierarchy of laws of the member states. The examination of existing case law and the literature published on the particular issue have led to the followed. (46) Markovits suggests that the freedom-based approach to Article 101(l)(e) TFEU, which protects the freedom of business people that the conduct falling under Article 101(l)(e) TFEU constrains even where only intrabrand competition is reduced, is ill-conceived: such businesspeople accept those constraints exercising their free will and the. Chapter 8 Article 105 TFEU - Application of Arts 101 and 102 by the Commission. Chapter 9 Article 106 TFEU - Public undertakings. Chapter 10 Article 107 TFEU - General rule: Prohibition of aid. Chapter 11 Article 108 TFEU - Procedure before the Commission: Notification of aid The broad scope of Article 34 TFEU does not restrict the ability of Member States to regulate products in accordance with their national priorities because it is very easy for a Member State to justify their rules if they do breach Article 34 TFEU. Discuss the above statement with reference to the case law of the CJEU. Question